I likewise planted a windbreak of this species and have been getting plenty of sprouting. I just mow them where I don’t want them and let the windbreak grow denser. I have list some to the locust borer beetles. The references I have show their native distribution to be a lot wider than the states you mentioned. Regardless, they can spread a lot and be a nuisance where not wanted.One source lists the native range to be these states.
Illinois , southern Indiana, Ohio and Missouri.
I have a friend that has property about 70 miles to the southwest of me, close to Wi Dells. He put in a native planting under the CRP program about 4 summers ago. Had black locust along property line on one side of the planting. It was amazing that within 2 summers the black locust started springing 20 to 50 foot inside the planted natives and reached 8 to 10 foot high in that time. He has now spent time and resources girdling the mother trees.